The Simplified Process of Beer Brewing

The Basics of the Beer Brewing Process

A craft brewer manipulates four basic ingredients in order to create unique styles from around the world. The brewing process may seem complicated and mysterious to outsiders, but it’s actually quite simple.

Basically, water is combined with cracked malt in a vessel called the mash tun and thanks to enzymes present, starches are broken down into sugars. It’s then boiled, cooled and yeast is added to eat the sugars.


Malting is the first step in transforming barley (or wheat, rye or corn) into beer. The grain is soaked and then sprouts, which activates enzymes that convert complex starches into sugars that yeast can turn into alcohol.

Then the sprouted grain is dried by kilning it. The kiln is constructed with perforated floors through which fans draw cool and hot air to control temperatures.


The brewer grinds the malted grain to prepare it for the mashing process. Mashing involves combining the grain with hot water to activate maltase and convert starches into sugars.

Milling the grain too course will prevent proper drainage of the mash tun, and milling it too fine may cause damaged husks to release tannins into the wort and beer. [3]

This step is essential to ensure a consistent product.


This is one of the most critical steps in the beer brewing process. The mashing step allows the natural enzymes in the malt to activate and convert starches into sugars that are then a “food source” for yeast during fermentation.

The brewer uses a variety of techniques to create a mashing program that will give the desired characteristics for a particular beer style. The choice of temperature is part of the brewer’s art.

Extract Separation

The brewer can choose from a number of temperatures during mashing. These choices are part of the art of brewing as different temperature levels affect how the malt enzymes break down the starches and convert them to sugars.

Adding the right amount of solvent to a separatory funnel is important. Too little and only one layer will form. Too much and the organic layer will be discarded.

Hop Addition

Brewers add hops for bitterness, flavor or aroma. The bitterness comes from alpha acids, while flavor and aroma come from volatile oils that are boiled off during the boil.

Aromatic additions are often made in the last few minutes of the boil or at flameout just before rapid chilling, allowing the compounds to survive. However, this limits the amount of isomerization that can take place.


The wort is boiled to sterilize it. Hops are added to the boil at different points to provide bitterness, flavor and aroma. They can be added early in the boil for bittering or at the end of the boil for flavor and aroma.

The wort is then filtered and cooled to a specific temperature. This enables the yeast to begin their work of converting sugars into alcohol.


Cooling is an important step in the beer brewing process. It prevents bacteria from growing and prepares the wort for fermentation.

There are many different methods for cooling wort, but most homebrewers start by submerging their carboy in an ice bath. More advanced breweries may use a glycol cooling system that uses cold water or food-grade ethylene glycol to chill their wort.


The fermentation stage is where the magic really happens. Yeast will eat the sugars in the wort and convert them into carbon dioxide and alcohol.

This happens at different temperatures, depending on the style of beer and the yeast used. This affects how fast the fermentation is, as well as the aromas and flavors that develop. This step can take days or months to complete.


When the beer is finished fermenting, it goes through a process known as conditioning. This involves storing the beer in specific temperature conditions for weeks (or months, depending on the style of beer) to mellow out and develop flavors and aromas.

The beer is then bottled, canned, or kegged for sale to customers. It may also be filtered and carbonated, depending on the style of beer.


When a beverage is carbonated, the pressure inside the bottle or can drops to match the air outside. This allows H2CO3 to convert back into CO2 and the effervescence that humans’ taste buds detect as carbonic acid.

Brewing beer seems complicated, but it can be broken down into four simple steps: mashing, separation, boiling, and fermentation. With a little practice, it can be done at home.

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